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Title: Characterisation of thermal and coupling effects in advanced silicon MOSFETs
Authors: Makovejev, Sergej
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: Newcastle University
Abstract: New approaches to metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) engineering emerge in order to keep up with the electronics market demands. Two main candidates for the next few generations of Moore’s law are planar ultra-thin body and buried oxide (UTBB) devices and three-dimensional FinFETs. Due to miniature dimensions and new materials with low thermal conductivity, performance of advanced MOSFETs is affected by self-heating and substrate effects. Self-heating results in an increase of the device temperature which causes mobility reduction, compromised reliability and signal delays. The substrate effect is a parasitic source and drain coupling which leads to frequency-dependent analogue behaviour. Both effects manifest themselves in the output conductance variation with frequency and impact analogue as well as digital performance. In this thesis self-heating and substrate effects in FinFETs and UTBB devices are characterised, discussed and compared. The results are used to identify trade-offs in device performance, geometry and thermal properties. Methods how to optimise the device geometry or biasing conditions in order to minimise the parasitic effects are suggested. To identify the most suitable technique for self-heating characterisation in advanced semiconductor devices, different methods of thermal characterisation (time and frequency domain) were experimentally compared and evaluated alongside an analytical model. RF and two different pulsed I-V techniques were initially applied to partially depleted silicon-on-insulator (PDSOI) devices. The pulsed I-V hot chuck method showed good agreement with the RF technique in the PDSOI devices. However, subsequent analysis demonstrated that for more advanced technologies the time domain methods can underestimate self-heating. This is due to the reduction of the thermal time constants into the nanosecond range and limitations of the pulsed I-V set-up. The reduction is related to the major increase of the surface to volume ratio in advanced MOSFETs. Consequently the work showed that the thermal properties of advanced semiconductor devices must be characterised within the frequency domain. For UTBB devices with 7-8 nm Si body and 10 nm ultra-thin buried oxide (BOX) the analogue performance degradation caused by the substrate effects can be stronger than the analogue performance degradation caused by self-heating. However, the substrate effects can be effectively reduced if the substrate doping beneath the buried ii oxide is adjusted using a ground plane. In the MHz – GHz frequency range the intrinsic voltage gain variation is reduced ~6 times when a device is biased in saturation if a ground plane is implemented compared with a device without a ground plane. UTBB devices with 25 nm BOX were compared with UTBB devices with 10 nm BOX. It was found that the buried oxide thinning from 25 nm to 10 nm is not critical from the thermal point of view as other heat evacuation paths (e.g. source and drain) start to play a role. Thermal and substrate effects in FinFETs were also analysed. It was experimentally shown that FinFET thermal properties depend on the device geometry. The thermal resistance of FinFETs strongly varies with the fin width and number of parallel fins, whereas the fin spacing is less critical. The results suggest that there are trade-offs between thermal properties and integration density, electrostatic control and design complexity, since these aspects depend on device geometry. The high frequency substrate effects were found to be effectively reduced in devices with sub-100 nm wide fins.
Description: PhD Thesis
Appears in Collections:School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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