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Title: Voltage equalisation techniques for high capacitance device modules
Authors: Lambert, Simon
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Newcastle University
Abstract: Traditionally, the electrochemical battery has been the prime medium by which electrical energy is stored for future use. Increasingly, the demands of modern systems such as electric vehicles, renewable energy, distributed generation, smart grid and others has stretched the development of new chemistries, materials and assembly techniques for electrochemical batteries. Additionally, some load profiles in these applications demand extremely high dynamic behaviour which is either undeliverable by conventional electrochemical batteries or is undesirably damaging to these technologies. As such, a family of electrochemical storage, known generally as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors, have been developed and implemented for such applications. In recent years advancements in electrochemical technology has led to hybridisation of high capacitance devices. Lithium-ion capacitors that are used in this work are, with their higher cell voltage and modern packaging, expected to be among the next emerging families of state-of-the-art electrical energy storage devices. The relatively low cell voltage of high capacitance cells requires them to be connected in series to attain a system level voltage. During charging and discharging, manufacturing tolerances between the cells results in voltage mismatch across the stack. Mismatched voltages are an inefficient use of the energy storage medium and can lead to dangerous failures in the cells. Several techniques exist to limit the variance in cell voltages of supercapacitors across a series connected stack. These range from simple systems which discharge the cells at higher voltages through resistors to more complex active converter systems which equalise the cell voltages through charge redistribution via a power electronic converter. Whilst the simpler schemes are effective they are very inefficient and as such are not suitable for use in many applications. A number of active converter voltage equalisation schemes have been proposed in literature, however, each of these equalisation schemes exhibit flaws which either makes them less desirable or less effective for a broad range of applications. Therefore, a new equalisation converter topology is proposed which is designed for greater equalisation effectiveness, modularity and size. The proposed equalisation converter differs from previously published equalisation schemes by allowing energy transfer between any pair of cells without the cumbersome multi-winding transformers employed in existing equalisation converters. The new equalisation scheme uses a bi-directional arrangement of MOSFET switches for galvanostatic isolation allowing the converter to be multiplexed to the stack. This arrangement allows the total size of the equalisation scheme to be reduced whilst maintaining performance.
Description: Phd Thesis
Appears in Collections:School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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