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|Power quality improvements of single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems
|Mnider, Abdalbaset Mohamed Husian
|The number of distributed power generation systems (DPGSs), mostly based on photovoltaic (PV) energy sources is increasing exponentially. These systems must conform to grid codes to ensure appropriate power quality and to contribute to grid stability. A robust and reliable synchronization to the grid is an important consideration in such systems. This is due to the fact that, fast and accurate detection of the grid voltage parameters is essential in order to implement stable control strategies under a broad range of grid conditions. The second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) based phase-locked loop (PLL) is widely used for grid synchronization of single-phase power converters. This is because it offers a simple, robust and flexible solution for grid synchronization. However, the SOGI-PLL is affected by the presence of a dc offset in the measured grid voltage. This dc voltage offset is typically introduced by the measurements and data conversion process, and causes fundamental-frequency ripple in the estimated parameters of the grid voltage (i.e. voltage amplitude, phase angle and frequency). In addition to this ripple, the unit amplitude sine and cosine signals of the estimated phase angle (i.e. unit vectors), that are used to generate reference signals in the closed-loop control of grid-connected PV converters will contain dc offset. This is highly undesirable since it can cause dc current injection to the grid, and as a consequence, the quality of the power provided by the DPGSs can be degraded. To overcome this drawback, a modified SOGI-PLL with dc offset rejection capability is proposed. The steady-state, transient and harmonic attenuation performance of the proposed PLL scheme are validated through simulation and experimental tests. The overall performance demonstrates the capability of the proposed PLL to fully reject such dc current injection as well as to provide a superior harmonic attenuation when compared with the SOGIPLL and two other existing offset rejection approaches. It is shown that, the proposed PLL scheme can enhance the overall total harmonic distortion (THD%) of the injected power by 15% when compared to the conventional SOGI-PLL. In addition to the synchronization, grid-connected PV systems require a current control scheme to regulate the output current. Due to the simple implementation, proportional-integral (PI) controllers in the stationary reference frame are commonly used for current controlled inverters. However, these PI-controllers exhibit a major drawback of failure to track a sinusoidal reference Abstract ii without steady-state error, which may result in low-order harmonics. This drawback can be overcome if the PI-controllers are implemented in direct-quadrature (dq) rotating reference frame. In single-phase systems, the common approach is to create a synthesized phase signal orthogonal to the fundamental of the real single-phase system so as to obtain dc quantities by means of a stationary-to-rotating reference frame. The orthogonal synthesized signal in conventional approaches is obtained by phase shifting the real signal by a quarter of the fundamental period. The introduction of such delay in the system deteriorates the dynamic response, which becomes slower and oscillatory. This thesis proposes an alternative way of implementing such PI-controllers in the dq reference frame without the need of creating such orthogonal signals. The proposed approach, effectively improves the poor dynamic of the conventional approaches while not adding excessive complexity to the controller structure. The results show that, in addition to its ability to regulate the current and achieve zero steady-state error, the proposed approach shows superior dynamic response when compared with that of conventional delay-based approach.
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|School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
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|Mnider, A.M.H. 2017 (12mth).pdf
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