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Title: Calm Displays and Their Applications : Making Emissive Displays Mimic Reflective Surfaces Using Visual Psychophysics, Light Sensing and Colour Science
Authors: Kučera, Jan
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Newcastle University
Abstract: Our environment is increasingly full of obtrusive display panels, which become illuminating surfaces when on, and void black rectangles when off. Some researchers argue that emissive displays are incompatible with Weiser and Seely Brown's vision of "calm technology", due to their inability to seamlessly blend into the background. Indeed, Mankoff has shown that for any ambient technology, the ability to move into the periphery is the most relevant factor in their usability. In this thesis, a background mode for displays is proposed based on the idea that displays can look like an ordinary piece of reflective paper showing the same content. The thesis consists of three main parts. In the first part (Chapter 4), human colour matching performance between an emissive display and reflective paper under chromatic lighting conditions is measured in a psychophysical experiment. We find that threshold discrimination ellipses vary with condition (16.0×6.0 ΔEab on average), with lower sensitivity to chroma than hue changes. Match distributions are bimodal for some conditions. In the second part (Chapter 5), an algorithm enabling emissive displays to look like reflective paper is described and evaluated, giving an average error of ΔEab = 10.2 between display and paper. A field study showed that paper-like displays are more acceptable in bedrooms and that people are more likely to keep them always on than normal displays. Finally, the third part (Chapter 6) concerns the development and four-week trial of a paper-like display application. Using the autobiographical design method, a system for sharing bedtime with a remote partner was developed. We see that once unobtrusive, display systems are desired for use even in spaces like bedrooms. Paper-like displays enable both emerging and existing devices to move into the periphery and become “invisible”, and therefore provide a new building block of calm technology that is not achievable using simple emissive displays.
Description: Ph. D. Thesis.
Appears in Collections:School of Computing

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