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Title: Philanthropy and the socioeconomic development of Pakistan
Authors: Khan, Muhammad Saad Masud
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Newcastle University
Abstract: This thesis evaluates the present role and future potential of philanthropy in the socioeconomic development of Pakistan. It is the first in-depth study on the topic and adds to the wider literature on socioeconomic development in developing countries beleaguered by poverty, inequality and seemingly relentless population growth. The principal objective is to better understand the role played by philanthropically funded third sector organizations in addressing developmental and inequality challenges in countries like Pakistan. In doing so, the study identifies the motivations of philanthropic actors in establishing charitable organizations, examines the governance and management practices of such organizations, and explores the socially innovative practices of five case study organizations and the magnitude of their contributions to social well-being. The study is focused on answering a core research question - what is role of philanthropy in the ongoing socioeconomic development of Pakistan? – and takes an interpretivist approach, carefully considering both quantitative and qualitative evidence and guided by appropriate theory, notably Bourdieusian social theory. Quantitative data were gathered from international development agencies and survey results published by the Pakistan Centre for Philanthropy. Qualitative data were gathered from (a) a group of development experts and policy makers and (b) five case study organizations by means of semi-structured interviews, collection of documents and field observations. The quantitative data were used to create charts and tables and proved valuable in assessing the importance of different forms of philanthropic funding relative to government spending and overseas development assistance. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically through coding and application of the Gioia method of qualitative data reduction. My analysis is framed by four subsidiary research questions, one for each thematic chapter. The study makes four main empirical contributions to the literature on philanthropy and socioeconomic development in Pakistan. First, I show that philanthropy has played and continues to play a supporting role to government and that in quantitative terms the supply of philanthropic funds has struggled to keep pace with demand. Second, I demonstrate that philanthropy is inextricably linked to social activism with funds raised from the many not the few to support front-line charitable organizations in addressing fundamental social needs. Third, I find that there is a variable approach to governance within the philanthropic sector and make the case for more regulation as a precondition for increased philanthropic funding. Fourth, I show that the main contribution of philanthropy to the socioeconomic development of Pakistan stems from social innovations that help in satisfying unmet social needs in healthcare, education and community development. At a more abstract, theoretical level, I identify and specify the role of indigenous social activists as pivotal actors in delivering the social innovations at the heart of the development process and move beyond viewing philanthropy as a monolithic construct to identify the agentic nexus between philanthropy and social activism as crucial in creating and embedding new organizational models and practices that deliver beneficial economic and social change.
Description: PhD Thesis
Appears in Collections:Newcastle University Business School

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